ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:  HUMAN SKELETON LABORATORY

 

AXIAL SKELETON                   

CRANIUM (skull is divided into the cranium and facial bones)

            frontal bone

            parietal bones

            occipital bone

            temporal bones

            sutures (joints between cranial bones)

            fontanels on fetal skull

            foramen (holes for nerves, blood vessels, etc.)

            foramen magnum

 

FACIAL BONES

            nasal

            zygomatic (cheekbone)

            maxilla (upper jaw)

            mandible (jaw bone)

           

AUDITORY OSSICLES

           

HYOID

 

VERTEBRAE, general features                                

        spinous process                        

             transverse processes                            

             vertebral foramen (opening for spinal cord)  

vertebrae, specific                 

        cervical (in the neck region, 7)

           thoracic (ribs attached, 12)

            lumbar (lower back, 5)

            sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)

            coccyx (tail, 3-5 fused bones)

 

 

STERNUM (breastbone)

 

RIBS

            true (attached to sternum, #1-#7)

            false (attached to cartilage of rib #7, #8-#10)

            floating (unattached to sternum)

 

 

APPENDICULAR   SKELETON

 

PECTORAL GIRDLE:                                          

             clavicle (collarbone)

             scapula (shoulder blade)                                                                      

                                                                                                                       

UPPER APPENDAGE:                                                         

        humerus (arm)                                                        

        ulna (medial forearm)                                                 

        radius (lateral forearm)                                               

        carpals (wrist)                                                        

        metacarpals (palm)                                                    

        phalanges (fingers)

 

PELVIC GIRDLE:

        os coxae (hip bones)

                acetabulum (socket for femur)

                        ilium, ischium, pubis

                        pubic symphysis (pubic bones meet)

                        male vs. female

 

LOWER APPENDAGE:

            femur (thigh)

        tibia (medial lower leg)

        patella (kneecap)

        fibula (lateral lower leg)

        tarsals (ankle)

        metatarsals (foot)

        phalanges (toes) 

 

 

 

 

ARTICULATIONS  (JOINTS)

 

synarthroses (immovable):   sutures in bones of cranium

 

amphiarthroses (slightly movable):   ribs and vertebra

 

diarthroses (synovial or freely movable): 

            some types

                 ball and socket:       shoulder and hip

                 hinge:                       elbow and knee

                 pivot:                        between 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae (saying “no”)

 

 

                                     

                                      Here is a link for practice and fun:

                                         

                                                                        Skeleton game

 

 

 

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