I    Introduction


  II   Functions

            A.  Support

            B.  Protection

            C.  Movement

            D.  Storage and release of minerals

            E.  Red blood cell production:  erythropoiesis


  III   Bones

        A.  Categories

            B.  Anatomy of a long bone

                        1.  diaphysis

                        2.  epiphyses

                                    a.  plate  ---> line

                                    b.  increase in length

                        3.  articular cartilage

                        4.  periosteum

                                    a.  nourishment

                                    b.  attachment site

                                    c.  osteogenesis (osteoblasts create bone)

               5.  types of bone tissue

                                    a.  spongy (spaces, trabeculae, red marrow)

                                    b.  compact bone (dense, atop spongy bone)

                        6.  medullary cavity

                        7.  endosteum

                                    a.  nourishment

                                    b.  remodels (osteogenesis and bone reabsorption by osteoclasts)

                                    c.  maintains Ca+ levels in blood

                                                1.  hormonal regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts     

                                                            a.  calcitonin

                                                            b.  parathyroid hormone (PTH)

                                                2.  osteoporosis, Paget's disease

            C.  Organ

            D.  Formation

                1.  intramembranous ossification

                                    a.  fontanelles

                        2.  endochondral ossification


IV   Skeleton (in lab)            

            A.  Regions

                        1.  Axial:  protective bones

                                    a.  vertebral column

                                                1.  curves:  kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis

                                                2.  discs

                        2.  Appendicular:  movement

            B.  Bones  

                    print out Bone Identification List 


            C.  Joints (articulations)

                        1.  functional types

                                    a.  immovable (synarthrosis)

                                    b.  slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)

                                    c.  freely movable (diarthrosis or synovial)

                        2.  movement vs. stability

                                    a.  dislocation (luxation)

                        3.  problems

                                    a.  rheumatism

                                                1.  arthritis

                                                            a.  rheumatoid

                                                            b.  osteoarthritis





When you have finished this unit, you should be able to:

    -  list the basic functions of the skeletal system

    -  compare the general function of flat bones and long bones

    -  draw and label the regions of a long bone, and list the function of each area

    -  explain the significance of the epiphyseal plate

    -  identify compact and spongy bone

    -  explain how the body maintains the calcium levels in the blood using osteoblasts,

            osteoclasts, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    - describe the effects of osteoporosis and Paget's disease on bone and their causes

    - contrast the two types of bone formation

    - describe a fontanelle, its function, and duration

    -  compare the axial and appendicular divisions of the skeleton

    -  identify the major bones in the body

    -  distinguish between normal and abnormal vertebral curvatures

    -  explain the advantages of normal vertebral curvatures

    -  describe the structure of an intervertebral disc and what it contributes to the vertebral column

    -  give one example for each of the three functional categories of joints

    -  explain the relationship between the distance between bones in a joint and the movement and stability in that joint

    -  distinguish between osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout





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