RESPIRATORY  SYSTEM  AND  RESPIRATION

 

            

 

I  Organs of Respiratory System

            A.  Conducting Units

                        1.  nasal cavities

                                    a.  cilia and mucus

                                    b.  nasal sinuses

                        2.  pharynx (throat)

                                    a.  tonsils

                                    b.  swallowing

                        3.  larynx (voicebox)

                                    a.  cartilages:  thyroid and epiglottis

                                    b.  glottis          

                                    c.  vocal cords

                        4.  trachea (windpipe)

                                    a.  C-shaped cartilages

                                    b.  lining and protection

                        5.  bronchi ----> bronchioles

            B.  Respiratory Units

                        1.  alveoli (lung tissue)

                                    a.  respiratory membrane

                                    b.  �dust cells�

                                    c.  surfactant

 

 

II  Pulmonary Ventilation

            A.  Site of lungs

                        1.  thoracic cavity

                        2.  pleural membranes

            B.  Mechanics

                        1.  volume to pressure relationship

            C.  Inhalation (at rest)

                        1.  increase size of thoracic cavity

                                    a.  contract muscles:  external intercostals, diaphragm                

                                    b.  pleural adhesion

            D.  Exhalation (at rest)

                        1.  decrease size of thoracic cavity

                                    a.  relax muscles

            E.  Exhalation (with activity)

                        1.  decrease size of thoracic cavity more

                                    a.  muscle relaxation

                                    b.  muscle contraction:  internal intercostals, abdominals

III  External Respiration

            A.  Site

            B.  Process

 

IV  Internal Respiration

            A.  Site

            B.  Process

 

V   Cell Respiration

            A.  Site

            B.  Process

 

VI   Respiratory Disorders

            A.  Pneumothorax

            B.  Hypoxia

            C.  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

                        1.  chronic bronchitis

                        2.  emphysema

            D.  Lung Cancer

 

 

At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

    -  distinguish between the conducting portion and the respiratory portion of the respiratory system

    -  identify and locate the oral cavity, pharynx, three types of tonsils, larynx, and trachea

    -  discuss the structure of the trachea and how it fits its function

    -  draw and label an alveolus of the lung

    -  explain how the structure of an alveolus fits the role of gas exchange

    -  identify and describe the gross anatomy of the lungs (lobes and location)

    -  identify and describe the pleural membranes, pleural fluid and pleural cavity

    -  explain what pneumothorax means

    -  state the general principle which explains why air flows in and out of the lungs (pressure - volume relationships)

    -  explain how the volume of the thoracic cavity is increased and decreased during rest

    -  explain how the volume of the thoracic cavity is increased and decreased during activity

    -  state where external respiration occurs and what is happening during external respiration

    -  state where internal  respiration occurs and what is happening during internal respiration

    -  state where cell respiration occurs in the cell and give the formula for cell respiration (from earlier in the course)

    -  describe the conditions of hypoxia and COPD, including emphysema

 

 

 

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Last Updated: 11/30/17