I   Urinary System

            A.  Functions

            B.  Structures

                        1.  kidney

                                    a.  location

                                    b.  gross structure

                        2.  ureters

                                    a.  entry into bladder

                        3.  bladder

                                    a.  size variation

                        4.  urethra

                                    a.  sphincters

                                    b.  micturition

            C.  Urine formation

                        1.  nephron

                                    a.  renal corpuscle:  filtration of blood

                                    b.  renal tubules:  reabsorption of filtrate into capillaries

            D.  Water regulation

                        1.  aldosterone:  increases reabsorption of  Na+ and water from the renal tubules

                        2.  Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH):  increases the reabsorption of water from the renal tubules

            E.   Diseases

                        1.  kidney stones

                        2.  urinary tract infections (UTI)

                                    a.  cystitis:   bladder infection

                                    b.  pyelonephritis:   kidney infection

                        3.  diabetes insipidus

                                    a.  lack of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)



At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

- state the functions of the urinary system

- identify the organs of the urinary system

- describe the connection of the ureters to the bladder and how it prevents reflux

- compare the location and function of the internal and external urethral sphincter

- describe the structure of the nephron

- compare the function of the renal corpuscle and the renal tubules

- compare the effect aldosterone and ADH have on water levels in the body

- distinguish between cystitis and pyelonephritis






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