Introduction Engineering and Technology


Analog to Digital Conversion and Digital to Analog Conversion


The basis of the Digital Age is the continued development of digital electronics.

An important component in digital systems is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC).

A complimentary component is the Digital to Analog Converter (DAC).


ADC Steps

Sample the analog signal and place the sample value in one of the quantizing cells.

For each sample assign the closest digital code (binary).

Transmit the digital codes for each sample.

The bit rate is number of sample bits x samples per second.

Example: For land line telephones: 8bit sample x 8samples/second = 64,000 bits/second

DAC Steps

For each sample code convert it to the closest quantizing level

The difference between the closest quantizing level and the actual signal is the quantizing error.

The larger the quantizing level the larger the digitization distortion.



Analog-to-digital converter

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