Anatomy and Physiology Introduction:  Concepts and Terminology


I   Concepts of Course

            A.  Anatomy vs. Physiology

                        1.  definitions

            B.  ´┐ŻStructure fits Function´┐Ż

            C.  Homeostasis



II  Anatomical Terminology

            A.  Regions

                         1.  axial

                        2.  appendicular

            B.  Positional and directional terms

                        1.  superior and inferior

                        2.  anterior and posterior

                        3.  medial and lateral

                        4.  ipsilateral and contralateral

                        5.  proximal and distal

                        6.  standard anatomical position

            C.  Planes of section

                        1.  sagittal -  right and left sides

                                    a.  midsagittal

                                    b.  parasagittal

                        2.  transverse  (cross) - top and bottom

                        3.  frontal  (coronal) - front and back

            D.  Body Cavities

                        1.  dorsal

                                    a.  brain

                                    b.  spinal

                        2.  ventral

                                    a.  thoracic

                                                1.  pleural (2)

                                                2.  mediastinal space  -->  pericardium

                                    b.  abdominopelvic

                                                1.  abdominal

                                                2.  pelvic



                     1) Planes of section: go to

                                                         copy and paste the first diagram into a word document then identify the planes of section for A, B, C

                       2) Terms of direction: go to

                                                          copy and paste the diagram of directional terms at the top of the page into the same word document

                                                          then identify all six terms of direction.

                       3) Body cavities: go to

                                                  scroll down and copy the two body cavities diagrams and paste them into a word document

                                                  then fill the boxes with the correct body cavities.    


III  Homeostasis

            A.  Definitions

            B.  Set points

                        1.  medical diagnosis

            C.  Maintenance

                        1.  sensors

                        2.  control center

                        3.  effectors

                        4.  negative feedback regulation

                        5.  positive feedback regulation



when we have finished covering this material, you should be able to:  

            - distinguish between anatomy and physiology

            - give an example of how "structure fits function"

            - identify standard anatomical position and explain why it is important

            - be able to draw and label the major body cavities

- locate parts of the body using directional terms, planes of section, and body cavities

            - define homeostasis and give examples of it in the body

            - define set points and give examples in the body

            - define negative feedback regulation

            - explain what sensors do to maintain homeostasis

            - explain what the control center does to maintain homeostasis

            - explain what effectors do to maintain  homeostasis

            - describe an example of negative feedback regulation in the body, using sensors, control center and effectors

            - define positive feedback regulation

            - compare and contrast negative and positive feedback regulation, how are they alike and how do they differ





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Last Updated: 12/10/18