CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

     

I   Cell

            A.  Definitions

            B.  Plasmalemma

                        1.  compartmentalization

                        2.  structure

                                    a.  lipid bilayer

                                    b.  proteins

                                    c.  semipermeable

                        3.  crossing the membrane

                                    a.  passive transport (with concentration gradient)    

                                                1.  diffusion 

                                                                                     Animation: How Diffusion Works                                                       

                                                            a.  osmosis (water)

                                                                        1.  hypertonic

                                                                        2.  hypotonic

                                                                        3.  isotonic

                                                2.  facilitated diffusion (protein pore)

                                    b.  active transport (with ATP and protein carrier)

            C.  Cytoplasm

                        1.  definition:   cytosol + organelles

                        2.  cytoskeleton

                        3.  organelles (small compartments)

                                    a.  mitochondria

                                                1.  �powerhouse of cell� - energy production

                                                2.  cell respiration:  glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP)                               

                                    b.  membrane networks

                                                1.  rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) - protein synthesis

                                                2.  smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) - lipid synthesis

                                                3.  Golgi apparatus - protein sorting and packaging

                                    c.  lysosomes

                                                1.  �demolition sites� - microdigestive system

            D.  Nucleus

                        1.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

                                    a.  chromosomes vs. chromatin

                       2.  replication   (DNA to DNA)

                       3.  �command central�

                       4.  genes

            E.  Protein synthesis events

                         1.  DNA recipe copied on to RNA molecule = (mRNA) = transcription

                        2.  mRNA exit nucleus to ribosome

                        3.  transfer RNA (tRNA) with amino acid joins mRNA at ribosome = translation

 

 

       

       When you have finished this unit, you should be able to:

     

-   describe the structure of the plasma membrane

-   explain the function of the plasma membrane

-   explain why a substance crosses a membrane passively

-   define hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic

-   explain why and how a substance crosses a membrane actively 

-   contrast diffusion and osmosis

-   given specific conditions, determine if a substance will cross a membrane

-   list the different components of the cytoskeleton and explain how they differ

-   name the organelles in the cell and state the function of each  

-   define cell respiration and where it occurs in the cell

-   define a "gene"

-   describe the role of DNA and RNA in making a protein

-   compare and contrast transcription and translation

   

 

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Last Updated: 10/23/17