I   Overview

            A.  Sexual Reproduction

            B.   Common Characteristics

                        1.  gonads (testes and ovaries);  mixed glands

                        2.  duct systems

                        3.  accessory structures



  II  Male Reproductive System

            A.  Testes

                        1. descent

                        2. coverings

                                    a.  fascial sac layers (aponeuroses of inguinal ligament)

                                                1.  peritoneum (tunica vaginalis)

                                                2.  aponeurosis of transversus abdominis

                                                3.  aponeurosis of internal oblique (cremaster muscle)

                                                4.  aponeurosis of external oblique

                                    b.  scrotum

                                                1.  dartos muscle

                        3. internal structure

                                    a.  tunica albuginea

                                    b.  seminiferous tubules

                                                1. spermatogenesis



                        Exquisite SEM of transverse section of a seminiferous tubule !

                           (notice the tails of the sperm in the center of the tubule)


                                    c. Leydig cells

                                    d. rete testis

            B.  Duct system

                        1.  epididymis

                        2.  vas deferens (ductus deferens)

                                    a.  vasectomy   

                                    b.  spermatic cord

                        3. ejaculatory duct

                        4. urethra

                                    a. prostatic

                                    b. membranous

                                    c. spongy

            C.  Accessory sex glands (contribute to production of semen)

                        1. seminal vesicles

                        2. prostate gland

                                    a.  benign prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia




                        3. bulbourethral glands

            D.  Penis

                        1. root

                                    a.  bulb

                                    b.  crura

                        2. body

                                    a.  corpus spongiosum (contains urethra)

                                    b.  corpora cavernosa (2)

                        3. functioning


When you finish this unit, you should be able to:

            -  compare the necessity of the reproductive system to other systems of the body

            -  list the types of structures common to the male and female systems

            -  describe the descent of the testis and the wrappings that result

            -  distinguish between the spermatic cord and the vas deferens

            -  identify the structures in the testes and their functions

            -  explain why the temperature of the testis is important and how it is maintained

            -  describe the pathway a sperm takes from its site of production to its exit of body

            -  define semen

            -  list each of the organs contributing to the semen and state their contribution

            -  describe a vasectomy

            -  explain the structure of the penis and  the anatomy of an erection



III  Female Reproductive System

             A.  Ovaries

                        1.  support

                        2.  function

                        3.  structure

                        4.  ovarian cycle

                                    a.  follicular phase:  ovarian follicles

                                    b.  ovulatory phase:  Graafian follicle

                                    c.  luteal phase:  corpus luteum



                  Identify all the structures !      What cycle does this represent?                           


            B.  Duct system

                        1.  Fallopian tubes (oviducts)

                                    a.  discontinuous with ovary 

                                    b.  regions

                        2.  uterus

                                    a.  regions

                                    b.  anchorage                                                 

                                    c.  wall

                                                1.  perimetrium

                                                2.  myometrium

                                                3.  endometrium

                                                            a.  stratum basalis, stratum functionalis

                                    d.  uterine cycle

                                                1.  menstrual phase

                                                2.  proliferative phase

                                                3.  secretory phase phase

                        4.  vagina


            C.  Pelvic Diaphragm

                        1.  structure:   levator ani and coccygeus                                                           

                        2.  functions

                                    a.  support

                                    b.  abdominal pressure (with respiratory diaphragm)


            D.  Perineum

                        1.  anterior triangle  (urogenital triangle)

                        2.  posterior triangle  (anal triangle)

                        3.  perineal body  (central tendon)


            E.  Vulva  (external genitalia)

                        1.  mons pubis

                        2.  labia majora

                        3.  labia minora

                        4.  clitoris

                        5.  vestibule

                        6.  Bartholin�s glands

                        7.  bulb of vestibule


VI   Development of Reproductive Structures

            A.  Homologous structures


VII   Breast

            A.  location

            B.  external anatomy

            C.  internal anatomy

                        1.  lobes

                        2.  suspensory ligaments (Coopers ligaments)

                        3.  lobules

                                    a.  fat

                                    b.  glands (alveoli)

                        4.  glands (alveoli) ---> mammary duct ---> mammary sinus ---> lactiferous duct

             D.  lactation

                        1.  stimulus

                        2.  hypothalamus

                                    a.  prolactin

                                                1.  milk production

                                    b.  oxytocin

                                                1.  myo-epithelial cells

                                                2.  �let-down� reflex



When you are finished with this unit, you should be able to:

            - identify the structures in the ovary and their function

            - describe the ovarian changes during the menstrual cycle (ovarian cycle)

            - describe the pathway an ovum takes from the ovary to its destination in the uterus

            - explain why women are vulnerable to PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)

            - identify and describe the layers of the uterine wall

            - describe the uterine changes during the menstrual cycle (uterine cycle)

            - explain the relationship between the corpus luteum and the uterine lining

            - define blastocyst and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

            - locate and describe the cervix of the uterus and the vagina

            - identify the rectouterine pouch

            - describe the structure and function of the pelvic diaphragm

            - describe the structure of the perineum

            - define "vulva"  and  describe the structures of the vulva

            - define homologous structures and give examples

            - identify the structural anatomy of the female breast

            - explain why the suckling position on the breast includes the lactiferous sinuses

            - state the effect of prolactin on breast tissue

            - describe the mechanism of the �milk ejection reflex�  and the hormone involved




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Last Updated: 12/10/18