BONES AND THE  SKELETAL SYSTEM  

 

                 

I   Overview

            A.  Introduction      

            B.  Functions

            C.  Types of Bones

            D.  Divisions

 

II   Axial Skeleton

            A.  Skull

                        1.  cranium

                                    a.  calvaria (cranial vault)

                                    b.  floor: anterior, middle, posterior cranial fossa

                        2.  facial bones

                        3.  sutures  (immovable joints)

                        4.  fetal skull

                                    a.  fontanelles

                                    b.  proportions

                        5.  paranasal sinuses

            B.  Vertebral Column

                        1.  types of vertebrae     

                        2.  generalized vertebra

                                    a.  parts and function

                        3.  curves

                                    a.  development

                                    b.  normal

                                    c.  abnormal:  lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis  

                         4.  discs

                                    a.  structure:  shape and substance  

                                    b.  herniated                                       

                        5.  ligaments

                                    a.  anterior longitudinal ligament

                                    b.  posterior longitudinal ligament

                                    c.  ligamentum flavum

            C.   Rib Cage

                        1.  Sternum:   manubrium, gladiolus, xiphoid process

                        2.  Ribs:   true, false, floating

 

III     Appendicular Skeleton

            A.  Girdles

                        1.  pectoral girdle:   clavicle and scapula

                       2.   pelvic girdle:   os coxae and sacrum

                                    a.  pelvic inlet and outlet

                                    b.  male vs. female

            B.  Limbs

 

 

IV    Bones:  Organs of System

            A.  Anatomy of a long bone

                        1.  diaphysis

                        2.  epiphysis

                        3.  epiphyseal cartilage (plate, line)                                 

                        4.  articular cartilage

                        5.  periosteum

                                    a.  nourishment

                                    b.  attachment for ligaments and tendons

                                    c.  osteogenesis

                        6.  types of bone tissue

                                    a.  spongy bone (by epiphyses)

                                                1.  spaces,  trabeculae, red marrow

                                    b.  compact bone (by periosteum)

                                                1.  dense, atop spongy bone

                        8.  medullary cavity

                                    a.  yellow marrow (red marrow in flat bones)

                        9.  endosteum

                                    a.  nourishment

                                    b.  remodeling

                                                1.  osteogenesis

                                                2.  bone reabsorption

 

V   Histology of Bone (Osseous tissue)

            A.  Connective tissue

                        1.  cells

                                    a.  osteoblasts

                                    b.  osteocytes

                                    c.. osteoclasts

                        2.  matrix  (intercellular substance)

                                    a.  collagen fibers

                                    b.  hydroxyapatites

                        2.  organization of compact bone

                                    a.  central canal

                                    b.  lamellae

                                    c.  caniliculi

                                    d.  lacunae

            B.  Formation

                        1.  intramembranous ossification

                                    a.  fontanels

                        2.  endochondral ossification

 

 

VI   Arthrology (study of joints, articulations)

            A.  Classification by function

                        1.  synarthroses - immovable

                        2.  amphiarthroses - slightly movable, fibrous connection

                        3.  diarthroses (synovial joints) - freely movable

                                    a.  articular capsule

                                    b.  synovial membrane

                                    c.  articular cartilage

                                    d.  reinforcing ligaments

                                    e.  bursae (synovial sheath)

                        4.  movement vs. stability

            B.  Synovial joints

                        1.  types

                                    a.  ball and socket

                                    b.  hinge

                                    c.  pivot

                                    d.  plane (sliding)

            C.  Problems

                        1.  luxation (dislocation)

                        2.  bursitis

                        3.  rheumatism

                                    a.  arthritis

                                                1.  rheumatoid

                                                2.  osteoarthritis

                                                3.  gouty

 

When you finish this unit, you should be able to:

    - discuss the functions of the skeletal system

    - identify an individual bone as flat, long, cuboid, or irregular

    - identify an individual bone as part of axial or appendicular skeleton

    - define cranium, calvaria, sutures, sinuses, fontanelles

    - list the general types and numbers of vertebrae

    - draw a typical vertebra , label its parts and state the function of each part

    - describe the shape of vertebral column at different stages of development

    - discuss the causes of the vertebral curvatures and the benefits of the curvatures

    - identify abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column

    - describe the structure and function of an intervertebral disc

    - describe a herniated disc

    - identify the major ligaments holding the vertebrae together and the role of each

    - describe the difference between true, false, and floating ribs and the numbers of each

    - define a girdle in the appendicular skeleton and its role

    - list the bones of the pectoral girdle and the bones of the pelvic girdle

    - identify the three major areas of a coxal bone and where they unite

    - describe and identify the boundaries of the pelvic inlet, pelvic outlet, true pelvis and false pelvis

    - distinguish between a male and female skeleton

    - draw, identify and state the role of :   diaphysis, epiphysis, articular cartilage

             epiphyseal plate, periosteum, medullary cavity, endosteum, trabeculae

    - define osteogenesis and state where it occurs

    - identify compact and spongy bone and compare their structure and role in bone

    - distinguish between osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast, their locations and functions

    - discuss the major components of bone matrix

    - describe and draw the structure of an osteon including the central canal, lamellae, lacunae, and caniliculi

    - compare and contrast the two major ways bone is formed (and how bone is not formed)

    - discuss the importance of having joints

    - define synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and diarthrosis

    - draw and label  the structures and accesssory structures of a synovial joint and the function of each

    - explain the relationship between the amount of movement in a joint and the amount of stability in that joint 

    - compare and contrast the distinguishing characteristics of a synarthrosis with an amphiarthrosis and a diarthrosis 

    - distinguish between rheumatism and arthritis

    - distinguish between the different types of arthritis

 

 

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Last Updated: 11/30/17