I   Overview of urinary system

                A.  Function

                B.  Structures


II    Kidney

                A.  Gross anatomy

                                1.  location

                                2.  retroperitoneal and packing

                                3.  hilus

                                4.  renal capsule

                                5.  cortex

                                6.  medulla - pyramids

                                7.  minor calyces ---> major calyces ---> renal pelvis

                                8.  blood supply




                B.  Microscopic anatomy

                                1.  nephron - functional unit of kidney

                                                a.  renal corpuscle  (filtering)

                                                                1.  glomerulus 

                                                                2.  Bowman's capsule

                                                b.  renal tubule  (reabsorption and secretion)

                                                                1.   proximal convoluted tubule

                                                                2.   loop of Henle

                                                                3.   distal convoluted tubule



III   Accessory structures

                A.  Ureters (2)

                B.  Bladder

                                1.  trigone

                                2.  transitional epithelium

                C.  Urethra (1)

                                1.  sphincters

                                2.  male

                                3. female


IV   Problems

                A.  Kidney stones

                B.  Urinary tract infections

                                1.  pyelonephritis

                                2.  cystitis



At the end of this unit, you should be able to:

  -  state the general functions of the urinary system

  -  identify the organs of the urinary system

  -  distinguish between ureter and urethra

  -  describe the gross anatomy of the kidney

  -  identify the different regions of a nephron

        (renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct)

  -  locate the sites of nephrons in the kidney

  -  describe the bladder

  -  describe the ureters connection to the bladder and how it prevents reflux

  -  compare the location and function of the internal and external urethral sphincter

  -  contrast the male and female urethra

  -  distinguish between cystitis and pyelonephritis


                                                        Link to Crossword



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Last Updated: 3/18/19