I   Communication systems

            A.  Nervous system

            B.  Endocrine system

            C.  Interactions

                        1.  hypothalamus


II   Endocrine System

            A.  Processes under endocrine regulation

            B.  General structure

                        1. glands

                        2. hormones

                                    a.  effects

                                    b.  target cells 




III  Glands

            A.  Pituitary (hypophysis)

                        1. location                                

                        2. structure

                                    a. posterior lobe (neurohypophysis):  hormone storage

                                                1.  oxytocin

                                                2.  antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

                                    b. anterior lobe (adenohypophysis):  hormone production



                          3. regulation

                                    a.  hypothalamic factors (hormones)

                                    b.  portal circulation



            B. Thyroid

                        1.  location



                        2.  structure

                        3.  hormones

                                    a.  thyroid hormone (TH)

                                    b.  calcitonin


            C.  Parathyroid glands

                        1. location and structure                           


                        2. parathyroid hormone (PTH)



            D.  Adrenals

                        1.  location


                        2.  structure

                                    a. cortex (3 layers):  corticosteroids (corticoids)                                               

                                    b. medulla:  epinephrine, norepinephrine

                                                1.  sympathetic effect 


            E.  Pancreas

                        1. location



                                                  Can you identify all the structures in this diagram?


                        2.  mixed gland

                                    a.  exocrine: acinar cells secrete digestive enzymes

                                    b.  endocrine: islet cells secrete hormones

                                                1.  alpha cells: glucagon

                                                2.  beta cells: insulin 

                                                            a.  diabetes mellitus    

1. acinar cells
2. islet cells
3. duct


            F.  Thymus

                        1.  location


                        2.  size

                        3.  thymosin

            G.  Pineal body

                        1.  location

                                Remember this?

                        2.  melantonin                          

            F.  Ovaries and Testes



When you finish this unit you should be able to : 

            - compare the general function of the nervous system and endocrine system

            - explain the role of the hypothalamus in linking the endocrine and nervous systems

            - list the types of processes regulated by the endocrine system

            - explain why neural regulation is fast and endocrine regulation is slower

            - identify and locate each of the endocrine glands in the body

            - identify the two different lobes of the pituitary and explain how they differ

            - explain how the hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland, using the portal circulation

            - state the hormones produced by each of the endocrine glands

            - identify the two different areas of the adrenal glands and explain how they differ

            - identify the structures linking the pancreas to other digestive organs

            - describe the exocrine and endocrine areas of the pancreas

            - compare and contrast ovaries and testes




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Last Updated: 3/18/19