CELL   ANATOMY

      

       I   Cell

            A.  Definitions:  basic unit of life                                                                                      

            B.  Plasmalemma

                        1.  semipermeable: creates a separate compartment for specialization                                            

                        2.  surface projections

                                    a.  cilia:  coordinated movement to move substances along surfaces               

                                    b.  flagella:  propel sperm

                                    c.   microvilli:  surface folds to increase surface area

 

 

                                                            

                                                                                   cilia

 

 

                                                                         

                                                                                flagellum   

 

   

                                                    

                                                                 microvilli

 

 

           C.   Cytoplasm

                        1.  cytosol (cell fluid)

                        2.  organelles:  small membrane-bound compartments

                                    a.  mitochondria:   energy production

                                                1.  cristae (folds of inner membrane)

                                                2.  matrix (substance enclosed by inner membrane)

                                    b.  membrane networks

                                                1.  RER (rough or ribosomal endoplasmic reticulum):  protein processing

                                                2.  SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum):   lipid processing

                                                3.  Golgi apparatus:   protein sorting and packaging

                                    c.  lysosome:   �demolition site�

                                                1.  contains digestive enzymes

                                    d.  nucleus:  control center

                                                1.  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

                                                            a.  chromatin (extended DNA)

                                                            b.  chromosomes (condensed DNA during mitosis)

                                                2.  nucleolus:  RNA

                        3.  cytoskeleton

                                    a.  microtubules:  support and transport

                                    b.  microfilaments:   cell locomotion and contraction

                                    c.  intermediate filaments:  support

 

 

 

By the end of this unit you should be able to do the following:

    -  define a cell

    -  distinguish between cytoplasm and cytosol

    -  explain why it is necessary for a cell to be enclosed by a plasma membrane

    -  define semi-permeable

    -  list three types of structures found on the surface of the plasmalemma

    -  compare and contrast the functions of cilia, flagella, and microvilli, how are they alike, how do they differ

    -  list three types of membrane networks (endoplasmic reticula) found in the cell

    -  compare and contrast the function of these three membrane networks, how are they alike, how do they differ 

    -  describe the structure of a mitochondrion (draw one and label the parts)

    -  define lysosome

    -  compare the structure and the function of a mitochondrion to a lysosome

    -  describe the anatomical differences (location and structure) between the nucleus and the nucleolus

    -  define DNA and RNA

    -  describe the structural differences between DNA and RNA  (make a rough diagram)

    -  contrast chromatin and chromosomes.  (how do they differ?)

    -  compare chromatin and chromosomes   (how are they alike?)

    -  draw he three types of cytoskeletal structures from smallest to largest 

    -  identify the different parts of a cell on a typical cell diagram

 

 

                                                                   

                                                                      click here for cell animation  (puzzles and quizzes available on this site)

                                                                                       

                                                               

 

               

 

                  

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Last Updated: 10/17/17