I   Tissues

            1.  Definition

            2.  Main types (4)


II  Epithelial tissue

            A.  Location     

            B.  Characteristics

                        1.  polarity

                        2.  cellularity

                        3.  cell junctions (tight)

                        4.  avascular

                        5.  rapid regeneration

                        6.  basement membrane

                        7.  secretion

                                    a.  glands

                                                1.  exocrine

                                                2.  endocrine

            C.  Structure

                        1.  number of layers

                        2.  cell shape




III Connective tissue

            A.  Functions

            B.  Components

                        1.  cells (fewer than in epithelial tissue)

                        2.  matrix (non-living)

                                    a.  amorphous material - "jellies"

                                    b.  fibers

                                                1.  collagen - strong

                                                2.  reticular - fragile, network

                                                3.  elastic - elastic

                        3.  type of connective tissue depends on the different combinations of components

            C.  Categories

                        1.  loose

                                    a.  characteristics:  soft, pliable, elastic

                                    b.  types:  areolar, adipose (fat), reticular

                        2.  dense

                                    a.  characteristics:  tough, fibrous,  thick collagen and/or elastic fibers

                                    b.  sites:  tendons, ligaments, pericardium, heart valves

                       3.  strong (cartilage and bone)

                                    a.  characteristics:   tough, flexible, no blood vessels, no nerves

                                    b.  cartilage types

                                                1.  hyaline

                                                            a.  sites:  ends of long bones, ribs, nose, respiratory tree

                                                2.  fibrous cartilage

                                                            a.  intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis

                                                3.  elastic cartilage

                                                            a.  ear, nose

                                    c.  bone types

                                                1.  compact

                                                2.  spongy

                        4.  hemopoietic connective tissue (blood and lymphatic tissues)

                                    a.  atypical:  cells (blood cells) + matrix (plasma)


IV  Muscle tissue

            A.  Function - shorten, contract

            B.  Muscle cells  (elongated, called "muscle fibers")

            C.  Types

                        1.  striated (skeletal)

                        2.  smooth (visceral)

                        3.  cardiac (heart)


V   Nervous tissue

            A.  Function - generate and conduct a nerve impulse

            B.  Cell types:  neuron and neuroglia

                         1.  neural structure and general function

                         2.  general function of neuroglia


VI   Cell Junctions

            A.  Tight junction - impermeable, sealing

            B.  Gap junction - communicating

            C.  Desmosome - anchoring


VII  Epithelial Membranes

            A.  Definition

            B.  Types

                         1.  mucosae

                         2. serosae

                         3. cutaneous



When you have finished this unit you should be able to :

    -  define:  tissue and gland

    -  list the 4 main categories of tissues

    -  state where epithelia are found in the body

    -  list the characteristics of epithelial tissue and discuss how they fit the function of epithelial tissue

    -  describe the formation of an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland

    -  compare and contrast exocrine and endocrine glands (how are they alike, how do they differ)

    -  distinguish between simple, stratified, squamous, cuboidal and columnar sheets of epithelial tissue

    -  identify the structures on the apical, lateral (side), and basal (base) sides of epithelial cells

    -  list the components which make up a connective tissue

    -  list the four main types of connective tissue and give an example of each in the body

    -  explain the structural differences between a loose connective tissue and a strong connective tissue

   -  explain why blood is a connective tissue (hemopoietic)

    -  list the three types of muscle tissue and draw a cell of each type

    -  name the two types of cells which make up neural tissue

    -  draw the general structure of a neuron and state its function

    -  identify the three types of cell junctions

    -  describe the structure and general function of each type of cell junction

    -  define epithelial membranes

    -  list the 3 types of epithelial membranes and generally where they are found in the body

    -  identify the category (epithelial, connective, muscle, neural) of a tissue based on a diagram




 Click on to TISSUE TUTORIAL for practice identifying tissues and to try a practice quiz.   



                    What type of tissue is this?  Why?



            Click on toTISSUE PRACTICE  to test yourself.




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